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Реализм по-польски: политика Польши в отношении бывших советских республик, 1991–2021 гг.

https://doi.org/10.46272/2587-8476-2021-12-1-132-145

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Аннотация

В статье анализируется восточный вектор политики Польши в отношении постсоветского пространства через теорию реализма международных отношений. В первой части статьи рассматриваются ключевые положения реалисткой теории международных отношений, во второй – существующая литература о внешней политике Польши. В третьей части автор рассматривает детерминанты политики Польши в отношении постсоветских государств (история ее отношений с регионом, идеологические основы ее политики, существующие вопросы безопасности и т.д.). В последней части автор задается вопросом об эволюции политики Польши до настоящего времени. Российская Федерация воспринимается Польшей как значительная угроза. В этом контексте с начала 1990-х гг. Польша искала решения для укрепления своей безопасности. Она стремилась присоединиться к Североатлантическому альянсу и установить тесное партнерство с Соединенными Штатами (в реалистской парадигме – примыкание, bandwagoning). Эта стратегия принесла существенный эффект: в 1999 г. Польша вступила в НАТО и с тех пор на ее территории размещены войска союзников. Польша также стремилась развивать сотрудничество с Украиной (в большей степени, чем с другими постсоветскими соседями) и приблизить их к евроатлантическим структурам. Эта политика была направлена, в частности, на ослабление влияния России в регионе (в реалистской парадигме – балансирование, balancing). Однако результаты этой стратегии оказались неоднозначными. Несмотря на то что Украина отвергла продвигаемые Россией проекты реинтеграции в постсоветское пространство, процесс реформ в этой стране идет медленно. Что касается других постсоветских государств, то Польша в основном оказалась неспособной повлиять на желаемые политические изменения в этих странах.

Об авторе

А. Шептицкий
Варшавский университет
Польша

Анджей Шептицкий, профессор кафедры стратегических исследований и международной безопасности, Факультет политических наук и международных исследований

ul. Żurawia 4, комната 406, 40700-503


Конфликт интересов:

Автор заявляет об отсутствии конфликта интересов



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Для цитирования:


Шептицкий А. Реализм по-польски: политика Польши в отношении бывших советских республик, 1991–2021 гг. Международная аналитика. 2021;12(1):132-145. https://doi.org/10.46272/2587-8476-2021-12-1-132-145

For citation:


Szeptycki A. Polish Take on Realism: Poland’s Policy Towards the Former Soviet Countries, 1991–2021. Journal of International Analytics. 2021;12(1):132-145. https://doi.org/10.46272/2587-8476-2021-12-1-132-145

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